The digital revolution has unleashed and empowered a host of actors including nation-states and their foreign intelligence services hoping to steal secrets related to national or economic security; criminal organizations committing theft and fraud online to turn big profits; terrorist groups seeking to plan and execute attacks; and “hacktivists” dedicated to a particular cause.  As the number and types of cyber threats continue to multiply, as well as converge with threats in the physical world, the United States must determine how best to prevent, prepare for, and respond to these dangers.  With so many adversaries possessing both the intent and capability to do us harm, the United States must strike a careful balance between offense and defense, in its strategy and tactics—and enable active defense, judiciously.

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